The recommended daily allowance (RDA) of elemental iodine by the Food and Nutrition Board of the United States National Academy of Sciences was not established until 1980, and it was not confirmed until 1989.1
In that year, 1989, the Executive Director of the International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (that is a very impressive title to say the least), Basil S. Hetzel, published a book entitled The Story of Iodine Deficiency..2 In that book, goiter and cretinism were the only two aspects of iodine deficiency discussed. One would assume that the experts on human requirements for iodine have already figured out the amounts of iodine needed for sufficiency of the human body (i.e., the daily amount of iodine needed for the prevention and control of cretinism and endemic goiter). However, the 1930 statement of Thompson, et al,3 is still valid today: “The normal daily requirement of the body for iodine has never been determined.” In the ninth edition of the classic textbook of nutrition, Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, edited by Shils, et al, and published in 1999, the section on iodine was written by no less than Basil S. Hetzel and coauthored with Graeme A. Clugston.4 They reported the latest recommended intakes of iodine established in 1996 by the World Health Organization (WHO), based on age and physiological conditions. The highest recommended daily intakes are for pregnant and lactating women — 200 mcg or 0.2 mg. In a subsection entitled “Iodine toxicity,” the authors stated: “Wolff39 has suggested that human intakes of 2,000 mcg I/day should be regarded as excessive or potentially harmful.” Please note, the unit mcg is used instead of 2 mg in order to make the amount appear really “excessive.” For example, if they used the unit ng, that amount would be 2,000,000 ng, a number that would scare just about anybody. Reference 39 in this citation was authored in 1969 by the world famous thyroidologist, I. Wolff,5 coauthor of the world famous Wolff-Chaikoff effect published in 1948.6 There was a fly in the Wolff-Chaikoff ointment, however.
In 1993, Ghent, et al,7 reported that daily intake of iodine at 0.1 mg/kg BW was effective in fibrocystic disease of the breast. The title of the article — “Iodine replacement in fibrocystic disease of the breast” — implies that this abnormality of the breast was due to iodine deficiency and the amount of iodine used, that is 5 mg/day for a 50 kg woman, was within the physiological ranges of iodine intake. Ghent’s study did not confirm Wolff’s prediction that daily iodine intake of 2,000 mcg (2 mg) was “excessive and potentially harmful” as quoted by Hetzel and Clugston.4 Based on academic credentials and reputation, the opinion of thyroidologist Wolff, from the National Institute of Health, would prevail over the findings of Canadian gynecologist Ghent. However, being interested in facts only, not in preconceived opinions of famous thyroidologists, this author initiated an extensive search of the literature on iodine in medicine.
The concept of orthoiodosupplementation is the outcome of this intensive literature search, which started seven years ago, combined with some original clinical research performed by the author. The clinical aspects of this research were performed under contract at the Flechas Family Practice Clinic in Hendersonville, North Carolina under the supervision of Jorge D. Flechas, MD, and funded with grants from Optimox Corporation. The author designed the protocols and monitored the progress and completion of each project. Informed consent was obtained from all the subjects participating in these projects. Pilot studies were performed with tablets containing Lugol solution in amounts per tablet ranging from 1 to 12.5 mg and compounded by John C. Hakala, RPh, from Hakala Apothecary in Lakewood, Colorado. The results of some of these projects have been published,8-12 with Flechas and Hakala as coauthors in two publications.10,11
From a review of the published data, it soon became evident that medical textbooks contain several vital pieces of misinformation about the essential element iodine, which may have caused more human misery and death than both world wars combined.8,9 The purpose of this manuscript is to present some useful information about iodine and to discuss the concept of orthoiodosupplementation in more detail than in previous publications.9,11 This manuscript was written in response to a request from the eclectic and altruistic physician, a recent collaborator on the iodine project, David Brownstein, MD, to expand further on the concept of orthoiodosupplementation with more details than in the previous publication9 in order to help the practicing physician fully appreciate the impact of this concept on their practice. Dr. Brownstein recently wrote a book about his experience with the implementation of orthoiodosupplementation in his practice.1
Continue reading here:IODINE: The Concept of Orthoiodosupplementation and Its Clinical Implications.